Original Article

Eugenol: A New Option in Combination Therapy with Sorafenib for the Treatment of Undifferentiated Thyroid Cancer


Thyroid cancer (TC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Thyroidectomy and radiotherapy are common treatment modalities for patients with undifferentiated TC (UTC), and sorafenib is usually recommended to prevent a recurrence. However, malignant cells may evade chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, and combination therapy was developed to achieve better outcomes. This study investigated whether eugenol in combination with sorafenib was more effective than either substance individually in triggering apoptosis in the UTC.
The IC50 of sorafenib and eugenol was determined in a UTC cell line (8305C) by MTT assay, and their synergistic effect in combination therapy was investigated. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the rate of apoptosis in treated cells. To confirm that cell death occurred through apoptosis, immunoblotting was used to determine the relative cleavage of caspase-8 and caspase-9.
The IC50 of sorafenib was 20 µM, and that of eugenol was 2100 µM. The sorafenib-eugenol combination (1:105) showed synergistic effects at concentrations equal to or less than their IC50. The rate of apoptosis induction was higher in cells treated with eugenol or the eugenol-sorafenib combination compared to sorafenib-treated cells. The relative intensity of cleaved/un
cleaved forms of caspase-8 increased in eugenol-treated cells compared to sorafenib-treated cells.Sorafenib and eugenol at concentrations equal to or less than their IC50 had a synergistic effect in 8305C cells. The most potent apoptotic effect was achieved with sorafenib and eugenol at their IC50. Lower doses of sorafenib could be used with eugenol to improve its efficacy while reducing its side effects.

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IssueVol 21 No 3 (2022) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v21i3.9804
Apoptosis Drug synergism Eugenol Sorafenib Thyroid neoplasms

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Talezadeh Shirazi P, Farjadian S, Dabbaghmanesh MH, Jonaidi H, Alavianmehr A, Kalani M, Emadi L. Eugenol: A New Option in Combination Therapy with Sorafenib for the Treatment of Undifferentiated Thyroid Cancer. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2022;21(3):313-321.