Case Report

Neonatal Onset of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Due to Prenatal Varicella-Zoster Infection in a Neonate with Griscelli Syndrome Type 2


Type 2 Griscelli syndrome (Type2 GS) is a primary inborn error of the immune system, classified in the immune dysregulation group.1,2 There are three different types of the disease, with different genetic causes responsible for the autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Although hypopigmentation is common in all variants, neurological involvement or immunodeficiency with varying severity is seen in different types. Molecular motor protein myosin 5 an (MYo5A) [Type1GS], guanosine Triphosphate (GTP) binding protein (RAB27A) [Type2GS], and mutation in human melanophilin (MLPH) [Type 3GS] which is limited to hypopigmentation are reported as the known genetic defects in GS.3 Severe, ineffective, and uncontrolled inflammatory reactions are referred to as the pathogenesis of Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). HLH is a life-threatening condition that can be defined as either primary or secondary. Secondary causes happen in the context of autoimmunity, malignancy, spontaneous, or infections.4 Prenatal infections play an important role in causing long-term complications in the fetus. Some of them include toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex, and other organisms including syphilis, parvovirus, and Varicella zoster, known as TORCH syndrome (5).TORCH has been well described for a long time but there are limited reports of developing HLH in the context of prenatal infections. We described a type 2GS syndrome with neonatal-onset HLH triggered by a prenatal infection.

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IssueVol 21 No 4 (2022) QRcode
SectionCase Report(s)
Griscelli syndrome type 2 Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis Primary immunodeficiency

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Nodehi H, Faranoush M, Arshi S, Nabavi M, Bemanian MH, Shokri S, Saghafi MR, Fallah M-S, Fallahpour M. Neonatal Onset of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Due to Prenatal Varicella-Zoster Infection in a Neonate with Griscelli Syndrome Type 2. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2022;21(4):488-493.