Original Article
 

Tumor Microenvironment Changing through Application of MicroRNA-34a Related Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Medium: Modulation of Breast Cancer Cells toward Non-aggressive Behavior

Abstract

Conditioned medium (CM) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contains bioactive molecules including microRNAs (miRs) that could be a potential tool for controlling cancer cells' behavior. Due to the properties of CM, this study assesses the effects of miR-34a related MSC-CM on tumor behavior through the evaluation of migration, invasion, apoptosis, and PDL1 expression in breast cancer cell lines.
The miR-34a overexpression vector or scramble control was produced using lentiviral vectors, DNA cloning, and the transfection of the HEK-293T cell line. It was then transduced into human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAD-MSCs). MSC-CMs were collected and added onto MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The functional evaluations were performed by transwell, wound healing, and Annexin V/PI methods on the treated MDA-MB-231 cell lines. The PDL1 expression was also assessed by Real-time PCR and western blot.
The findings of this study showed that ectopic miR‑34a expression was significantly upregulated in manipulated hASC with miR-34a (p<0.0001). Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cell line with miR-34a-hAD-MSC-CM, scramble-hAD-MSC-CM, or hAD-MSC-CM displayed not only a reduction in the number of migrated or invaded cells (p=0.01) but also an increase in the apoptotic cells in the test group (p=0.02) when compared to the control groups. It also showed down-regulation in the gene (p=0.05) and protein expression levels of PDL1 in the test group.
The results of the present study showed that simultaneous application of miR-34a and MSC-CM can be considered as a new method for changing the cancerous microenvironment; and therefore, as a potential strategy in breast cancer therapy.

1. Rakha EA, Reis-Filho JS, Baehner F, Dabbs DJ, Decker T, Eusebi V, et al. Breast cancer prognostic classification in the molecular era: the role of histological grade. Breast Cancer Res. 2010;12(4):207.
2. Koontongkaew S. The tumor microenvironment contribution to development, growth, invasion and metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. J Cancer. 2013;4(1):66-83.
3. Polyak K, Haviv I, Campbell IG. Co-evolution of tumor cells and their microenvironment. Trends Genet.25(1):30-8.
4. Zischek C, Niess H, Ischenko I, Conrad C, Huss R, Jauch K-W, et al. Targeting tumor stroma using engineered mesenchymal stem cells reduces the growth of pancreatic carcinoma. Ann Surg. 2009;250(5):747-53.
5. Kidd S, Spaeth E, Dembinski JL, Dietrich M, Watson K, Klopp A, et al. Direct evidence of mesenchymal stem cell tropism for tumor and wounding microenvironments using in vivo bioluminescent imaging. Stem cells. 2009;27(10):2614-23.
6. Carbajal KS, Schaumburg C, Strieter R, Kane J, Lane TE. Migration of engrafted neural stem cells is mediated by CXCL12 signaling through CXCR4 in a viral model of multiple sclerosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2010;107(24):11068-73.
7. Klopp AH, Gupta A, Spaeth E, Andreeff M, Marini III F. Concise review: dissecting a discrepancy in the literature: do mesenchymal stem cells support or suppress tumor growth? Stem cells. 2011;29(1):11-9.
8. Fridenshteĭn A, Petrakova K, Kuralesova A, Frolova G. Precursor cells for osteogenic and hemopoietic tissues. Analysis of heterotopic transplants of bone marrow. Tsitologiia. 1968;10(5):557.
9. Friedenstein AJ, Chailakhyan RK, Latsinik NV, Panasyuk AF, Keiliss-Borok IV. Stromal cells responsible for transferring the microenvironment of the hemopoietic tissues: cloning in vitro and retransplantation in vivo. Transplantation. 1974;17(4):331-40.
10. Dominici M, Le Blanc K, Mueller I, Slaper-Cortenbach I, Marini F, Krause D, et al. Minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. The International Society for Cellular Therapy position statement. Cytotherapy. 2006;8(4):315-7.
11. Visone R, Croce CM. MiRNAs and cancer. Am J Pathol. 2009;174(4):1131-8.
12. Hammond SM. An overview of microRNAs. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2015;87:3-14.
13. Yau WWY, Rujitanaroj P-o, Lam L, Chew SY. Directing stem cell fate by controlled RNA interference. Biomaterials. 2012;33(9):2608-28.
14. Reddy KB. MicroRNA (miRNA) in cancer. Cancer cell international. 2015;15(1):38.
15. Patel JS, Hu M, Sinha G, Walker ND, Sherman LS, Gallagher A, et al. Non-coding RNA as mediators in microenvironment–breast cancer cell communication. Cancer Lett. 2016;380(1):289-95.
16. Farahmand L, Esmaeili R, Eini L, Majidzadeh-A K. The effect of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium on proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer cell line. J Cancer Res Ther. 2018;14(2):341-4.
17. Naso MF, Tomkowicz B, Perry WL, Strohl WR. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) as a vector for gene therapy. BioDrugs. 2017;31(4):317-34.
18. Pang RT, Leung CO, Lee C-L, Lam KK, Ye T-M, Chiu PC, et al. MicroRNA-34a is a tumor suppressor in choriocarcinoma via regulation of Delta-like1. BMC cancer. 2013;13(1):25-9.
19. Rathod SS, Rani SB, Khan M, Muzumdar D, Shiras A. Tumor suppressive miRNA‐34a suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth of glioma stem cells by targeting Akt and Wnt signaling pathways. FEBS Open Bio. 2014;4(1):485-95.
20. Ye Z, Fang J, Dai S, Wang Y, Fu Z, Feng W, et al. MicroRNA-34a induces a senescence-like change via the down-regulation of SIRT1 and up-regulation of p53 protein in human esophageal squamous cancer cells with a wild-type p53 gene background. Cancer Lett. 2016;370(2):216-21.
21. Lai RC, Yeo RWY, Lim SK. Mesenchymal stem cell exosomes. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2015;40:82-8.
22. Hu G, Drescher KM, Chen X. Exosomal miRNAs: biological properties and therapeutic potential. Frontiers in genetics. 2012;3:56.
23. Matsuda A, Yan IK, Foye C, Parasramka M, Patel T. MicroRNAs as paracrine signaling mediators in cancers and metabolic diseases. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016;30(5):577-90.
24. Sagaradze G, Basalova N, Kirpatovsky V, Ohobotov D, Grigorieva O, Balabanyan VY, et al. Application of rat cryptorchidism model for the evaluation of mesenchymal stromal cell secretome regenerative potential. Biomed Pharmacother. 2019;109:1428-36.
25. Javeri A, Ghaffarpour M, Taha MF, Houshmand M. Downregulation of miR-34a in breast tumors is not associated with either p53 mutations or promoter hypermethylation while it correlates with metastasis. Med Oncol. 2013;30(1):413-7.
26. Rui X, Zhao H, Xiao X, Wang L, Mo L, Yao Y. MicroRNA‑34a suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion by targeting Notch1. Exp Ther Med. 2018;16(6):4387-92.
27. Yang S, Li Y, Gao J, Zhang T, Li S, Luo A, et al. MicroRNA-34 suppresses breast cancer invasion and metastasis by directly targeting Fra-1. Oncogene. 2013;32(36):4294-303.
28. Martin F, Dwyer RM, Kelly J, Khan S, Murphy J, Curran C, et al. Potential role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the breast tumour microenvironment: stimulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;124(2):317-26.
29. Coates JM, Galante JM, Bold RJ. Cancer therapy beyond apoptosis: autophagy and anoikis as mechanisms of cell death. J Surg Res. 2010;164(2):301-8.
30. Muñoz-Fontela C, Mandinova A, Aaronson SA, Lee SW. Emerging roles of p53 and other tumour-suppressor genes in immune regulation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016;15(2)741-50.
31. Cha YH, Kim NH, Park C, Lee I, Kim HS, Yook JI. MiRNA-34 intrinsically links p53 tumor suppressor and Wnt signaling. Cell cycle. 2012;11(7):1273-81.
32. Saleh R, Toor SM, Khalaf S, Elkord E. Breast Cancer Cells and PD-1/PD-L1 Blockade Upregulate the Expression of PD-1, CTLA-4, TIM-3 and LAG-3 Immune Checkpoints in CD4+ T Cells. Vaccines. 2019;7(4):149.
33. Ghebeh H, Barhoush E, Tulbah A, Elkum N, Al-Tweigeri T, Dermime S. FOXP3+ T regs and B7-H1+/PD-1+ T lymphocytes co-infiltrate the tumor tissues of high-risk breast cancer patients: Implication for immunotherapy. BMC cancer. 2008;8(1):57-62.
34. Sasidharan Nair V, Toor SM, Ali BR, Elkord E. Dual inhibition of STAT1 and STAT3 activation downregulates expression of PD-L1 in human breast cancer cells. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2018;22(6):547-57.
35. Rom-Jurek E-M, Kirchhammer N, Ugocsai P, Ortmann O, Wege AK, Brockhoff G. Regulation of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in breast cancer cell lines in vitro and in immunodeficient and humanized tumor mice. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(2):563-9.
36. Wang X, Li J, Dong K, Lin F, Long M, Ouyang Y, et al. Tumor suppressor miR-34a targets PD-L1 and functions as a potential immunotherapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia. Cell Signal. 2015;27(3):443-52.
Files
IssueVol 20 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
Published2021-04-17
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v20i2.6055
Keywords
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells Breast neoplasms Conditioned medium MIRN34 microRNA

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
1.
Bahman Soufiani K, Pourfathollah AA, Nikougoftar Zarif M, Arefian E. Tumor Microenvironment Changing through Application of MicroRNA-34a Related Mesenchymal Stem Cells Conditioned Medium: Modulation of Breast Cancer Cells toward Non-aggressive Behavior. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 20(2):221-232.