Original Article

Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema in Adolescents Living in Yazd City: Part of Global Asthma Network Survey

Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema in Yazd adolescents


Allergic rhinitis and eczema are two common global diseases that can lead to impaired quality of life. Determining the prevalence of these allergic disorders can be useful in planning prevention and treatment.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and severity of allergic rhinitis and eczema in adolescents living in Yazd city. Using an electronic questionnaire based on the Global Asthma Network (GAN) core questionnaire, 5141 adolescents aged 13–14 years were cross-sectionally surveyed.
The prevalence of current symptoms of rhinitis turned out to be 36.3%, proving significantly higher in boys (p=0.009). Moreover, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis in the past year leveled at 12.4% and 10.5%, respectively; however, the former was significantly higher in females (p=0.014). Additionally, severe rhinoconjunctivitis was observed in 0.2% of the participants with no gender preference (p=0.09). Confirmed hay fever by a doctor was reported in 13.2% of adolescents, significantly higher in males (p<0.001). The prevalence of current itchy rash and current eczema was found to be 5.5%, and 2.9%, respectively, with no difference in terms of gender. Severe atopic eczema and eczema confirmed by a doctor were seen in 0.4% and 5% of the participants, no gender preference was identified. Concurrent prevalence of current rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema was detected in 1% of the participants.
Despite the increasing trend of allergic diseases in most parts of the world, the prevalence of rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in adolescents has not increased in Yazd in the last two decades, and this city is located in a low to moderate prevalence area.

1. Meltzer EO. Quality of life in adults and children with allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(1):S45-S53.
2. Christiansen ES, Kjaer HF, Eller E, Bindslev‐Jensen C, Høst A, Mortz CG, et al. The prevalence of atopic diseases and the patterns of sensitization in adolescence. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2016;27(8):847-53.
3. Aït‐Khaled N, Pearce N, Anderson HR, Ellwood P, Montefort S, Shah J, et al. Global map of the prevalence of symptoms of rhinoconjunctivitis in children: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three. Allergy. 2009;64(1):123-48.
4. Odhiambo JA, Williams HC, Clayton TO, Robertson CF, Asher MI, Group IPTS. Global variations in prevalence of eczema symptoms in children from ISAAC Phase Three. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124(6):1251-8. e23.
5. Mallol J, Crane J, von Mutius E, Odhiambo J, Keil U, Stewart A, et al. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) phase three: a global synthesis. Allergol Immunopathol. 2013;41(2):73-85.
6. Asher MI, Montefort S, Björkstén B, Lai CK, Strachan DP, Weiland SK, et al. Worldwide time trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and eczema in childhood: ISAAC Phases One and Three repeat multicountry cross-sectional surveys. The Lancet. 2006;368(9537):733-43.
7. Ellwood P, Ellwood E, Rutter C, Perez-Fernandez V, Morales E, García-Marcos L, et al. Global Asthma Network Phase I surveillance: geographical coverage and response rates. J Clin Med. 2020;9(11):3688.
8. Behniafard N, Nafei Z, Mirzaei M, Karimi M, Vakili M. Prevalence and Severity of Adolescent Asthma in Yazd, Iran: Based on the 2020 Global Asthma Network (GAN) Survey. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021;20(1):24-32.
9. Karimi M, Mirzaei M, Ahmadieh MH. The Prevalence of Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema symptomsamong 13-14 year-old school chidren in Yazd in 2003. Jundishapur Scientific Medical Journal. 2007;6(3 (54)):270-5
10. Mohammadzadeh I, Barari-Savadkoohi R, Alizadeh-Navaei R. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Iranian children: A systematic review and descriptive meta-analysis. J Pediatr Rev. 2013;1(2):19-24.
11. Zamanfar D, Ghaffari J, Behzadnia S, Yazdani-charati J, Tavakoli S. The prevalence of allergic rhinitis, eczema and asthma in students of guidance schools in Mazandaran Province, Iran. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2016;4(4):619-23
12. Nasiri R, Homagostar G, Tajik M, Shekari A, Roshani D, Ataei P, et al. Evaluation of Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis Symptoms in Kurdistan, a Western Province in Iran. Int J Pediatr. 2015;3(6.1):1039-46.
13. Hatice Simsek R, Bennur Koca R, Temel AB. The Prevalence of Asthma and Allergic Diseases in Middle School Students and Related Environmental Factors. Int J Caring Sci. 2016;9(3):1049.
14. Chinratanapisit S, Suratannon N, Pacharn P, Sritipsukho P, Vichyanond P. Prevalence and severity of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in children from the Bangkok area: The Global Asthma Network (GAN) Phase I. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2019;37(4):226-31.
15. Gashi V, Ahmetaj LN, Ahmeti B. Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema in a Population of School Children from the City of Gjilan in Kosovo. Experimed.9(3):113-9.
16. Chen W, Mempel M, Schober W, Behrendt H, Ring J. Gender difference, sex hormones, and immediate type hypersensitivity reactions. Allergy. 2008;63(11):1418-27.
17. Roved J, Westerdahl H, Hasselquist D. Sex differences in immune responses: Hormonal effects, antagonistic selection, and evolutionary consequences. Horm Behav. 2017;88:95-105.
18. Ghaffari J, Navaeifar MR, Alizadeh-Navaei R. The prevalence of Eczema in Iranian children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pediatr Rev. 2014;2(1):2-9.
19. Hong S, Son DK, Lim WR, Kim SH, Kim H, Yum HY, et al. The prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis and the comorbidity of allergic diseases in children. Environ Health Toxicol. 2012;27:e2012006.
20. Pols DH, Wartna JB, van Alphen EI, Moed H, Rasenberg N, Bindels PJ, et al. Interrelationships between atopic disorders in children: a meta-analysis based on ISAAC questionnaires. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0131869.
21. Austin JB, Kaur B, Anderson HR, Burr M, Harkins LS, Strachan DP, et al. Hay fever, eczema, and wheeze: a nationwide UK study (ISAAC, international study of asthma and allergies in childhood). Arch Dis Child. 1999;81(3):225-30.
22. Rahimi Rad M, Hejazi M, Behroozian R. Asthma and other allergic diseases in 13-14-year-old schoolchildren in Urmia: an ISAAC study. East Mediterr Health J. 2007;13(5):1005-16.
IssueVol 20 No 3 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v20i3.6331
Adolescent Allergic rhinitis Eczema Prevalence

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Nafei Z, Behniafard N, Mirzaei M, Karimi M, Akbarian E. Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema in Adolescents Living in Yazd City: Part of Global Asthma Network Survey. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 20(3):271-278.