Original Article

Investigating the Variation of TREC/KREC in Combined Immunodeficiencies


T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC)/Kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) assay has been recently recognized for detecting patients with primary (T- and/or B-cell) immunodeficiency (PID). We aimed to investigate the alterations of these biomarkers in some combined immunodeficiency patients compared to the healthy controls in different age groups.
TREC and KREC were assessed in a total of 82 PID patients, most of them with exact genetic diagnosis (3 months to 42 years); using quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Patients had a final diagnosis of common variable immunodeficiency (n=23), ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) (n=17), hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) (7 with DOCK8 deficiency, 4 with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficiency, and 8 children with unknown genetic defects), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) (n=20), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)deficiency(n=1), dedicator of cytokinesis2 (DOCK2) deficiency (n=1), recombinase activating gene1 (RAG1) deficiency (n=1).
Very low to zero amounts of TREC and/or KREC were detected in 14 out of 23 cases of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), 14 out of 17 cases of AT, 8 out of 20 cases of WAS, 6 out of 7 cases of DOCK8-deficiency patients, 4 out of 8 cases of HIES with unknown genetic defects and all patients with defects in DOCK2, PNP, and RAG1. STAT3-deficient patients were normal for both biomarkers. All patients showed a significant difference in both markers compared to age-matched healthy controls.
Our findings highlight that apart from severe types of T/B cell defects, this assay can also be used for early diagnosis the patients with late-onset of disease and even PIDs without a positive family history.

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IssueVol 20 No 4 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v20i4.6950
Neonatal screening Primary immunodeficiency disorders Real-time polymerase chain reaction

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Shakerian L, Nourizadeh M, Badalzadeh M, Fazlollahi MR, Shokouhi Shoormasti R, Saghafi S, Esmaeili B, Alizadeh Z, Borte S, Houshmand M, Hammarström L, Pourpak Z. Investigating the Variation of TREC/KREC in Combined Immunodeficiencies. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021;20(4):402-412.