Pet Exposure and the Symptoms of Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis and Eczema in 6-7 Years Old Children
Allergic diseases are frequent in children and their prevalence and severity differ in the different regions of the world. The association between pet ownership in childhood and subsequent asthma and sensitization is very controversial.
In our survey conducted with standardized method (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood), 3200 children 6-7 years old were questioned regarding asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema.
The prevalence of Attacks and shortness of breath with wheezing during last 12 months in the children who had exposure to pets in the first year of life was 34.3% 'that was less than children who had not exposure (OR=3.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-8.21, P=0.021). Also during the past 12 months the prevalence of night dry coughs, allergic rhinitis symptoms and eczema symptoms in those who had pet exposure in the first year of their life was lower than the children did not have it. However there was no significant difference in some other symptoms of asthma in two groups.
Our findings suggest that pet exposure in the first year of life can have a protective effect on asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema.
1.Omran M, Russell G. Continuing increase in respiratory symptoms and atopy in Aberdeen schoolchildren. BMJ 1996; 312(7022):34.
2. Speight AN, Lee DA, Hey EN. Under diagnosis and under treatment of asthma in childhood. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1983; 286(6373):1253-6.
3. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program.Expert Panel Report: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma Update on Selected Topics 2002. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002; 110(Suppl 5):S141-219.
4. Lau S, Illi S, Sommerfeld C, Niggemann B, Bergmann R, von Mutius E, et al. Early exposure to house-dust mite and cat allergens and development of childhood asthma: a cohort study. Multicentre Allergy Study Group. Lancet 2000; 356(9239):1392-7.
5. Côté J, Cartier A, Robichaud P, Boutin H, Malo JL, Rouleau M, et al. Influence of asthma education on asthma severity, quality of life and Environmental control. Can Respir J 2000; 7(5):395-400.
6. Hesselmar B, Aberg N, Aberg B, Eriksson B, Björkstén B. Does early exposure to cat or dog protect against later allergy development? Clin Exp Allergy 1999; 29(5):611-7.
7. Al-Mousawi MS, Lovel H, Behbehani N, Arifhodzic N, Woodcock A, Custovic A. Asthma and sensitization in a community with low indoor allergen levels and low pet- keeping frequency. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114(6):1389-94.
8. Campo P, Kalra HK, Levin L, Reponen T, Olds R, Lummus ZL, et al. Influence of dog ownership and high endotoxin on wheezing and atopy during infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006; 118(6):1271-8.
9. Norbäck D, Zhao ZH, Wang ZH, Wieslander G, Mi YH, Zhang Z. Asthma, eczema, and reports on pollen and cat allergy among pupils in Shanxi province, China. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2007; 80(3):207-16.
10. Oberle D, von Mutius E, von Kries R. Childhood asthma and continuous exposure to cats since the first year of life with cats allowed in the child's bedroom. Allergy 2003; 58(10):1033-6.
11. Melsom T, Brinch L, Hessen JO, Schei MA, Kolstrup N, Jacobsen BK, et al. Asthma and indoor environment in Nepal. Thorax 2001; 56(6):477-81.
12. Hugg TT, Jaakkola MS, Ruotsalainen R, Pushkarev V, Jaakkola JJ. Exposure to animals and the risk of allergic asthma: a population-based cross-sectional study in Finnish and Russian children. Environ Health 2008; 7:28.
13. Burr ML, Anderson HR, Austin JB, Harkins LS, Kaur B, Strachan DP, et al. Respiratory symptoms and home environment in children: a national survey. Thorax 1999; 54(1):27-32.
14. Brunekreef B, Groot B, Hoek G. Pets, allergy and respiratory symptoms in Children. Int J Epidemiol 1992;21(2):338-42.
15. Anyo G, Brunekreef B, de Meer G, Aarts F, Janssen NA, van Vliet P. Early, current and past pet ownership: associations with sensitization, bronchial responsiveness and allergic symptoms in school children. Clin Exp Allergy 2002 ; 32(3):361-6.
16. Liccardi G, D'Amato G, D'Amato L, Salzillo A, Piccolo A, De Napoli I, et al. The effect of pet ownership on the risk of allergic sensitization and bronchial asthma. Respir Med 2005; 99(2):227–33.
17. Litonjua AA, Carey VJ, Burge HA, Weiss ST, Gold DR. Exposure to ockroach allergen in the home is associated with incident doctor-diagnosed asthma and recurrent wheezing. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001;107(1):41-7.
18. Suzuki K, Kayaba K, Tanuma T, Kitazawa J, Yanagawa H. Respiratory symptoms and hamsters or other pets: a large-sized population survey in Saitama Prefecture. J Epidemiol 2005; 15(1):9-14.
19. Pohlabeln H, Jacobs S, Böhmann J. Exposure to pets and the risk of allergic symptoms during the first 2 years of life.J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 2007;17(5):302-8.
20. Austin JB, Russell G. Wheeze, cough, atopy, and indoor environment in the Scottish Highlands. Arch Dis Child 1997; 76(1):22-6.
21. Almqvist C. High allergen exposure as a risk factor for asthma and allergic disease. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2005; 28(1):25-41.
22. Strachan DP. Hay fever, hygiene, and household size.BMJ 1989; 299(6710):1259-60. 23. Park JH, Spiegelman DL, Gold DR, Burge HA, Milton DK. Predictors of airborne endotoxin in the home. Environ Health Perspect 2001; 109(8):859-64.
24. Heinrich J, Gehring U, Douwes J, Koch A, Fahlbusch B, Bischof W, et al. Pets and vermin are associated with high endotoxin levels in house dust. Clin Exp Allergy 2001; 31(12):1839-45.
25. Gehring U, Bolte G, Borte M, Bischof W, Fahlbusch B, Wichmann HE, et al. Exposure to endotoxin decreases the risk of atopic eczema in infancy: a cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2001; 108(5):847-54.
26. Bottcher MF, Bjorksten B, Gustafson S, Voor T, Jenmalm MC. Endotoxin levels in Estonian and Swedish house dust and atopy in infancy. Clin Exp Allergy 2003; 33(3):295-300.
27. Martinez FD, Holt PG. Role of microbial burden in aetiology of allergy and asthma. Lancet 1999; 354 (Suppl 2):S12-5.
28. Tang ML. Is prevention of childhood asthma possible? Allergens, infections and animals. Med J Aust 2002; 177 (Suppl):S75-7.
29. Braun-Fahrländer C. Allergic diseases in farmers' children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2000; 11(Suppl13):19–22
30. Riedler J, Eder W, Oberfeld G, Schreuer M. Austrian children living on a farm have less hay fever, asthma and allergic sensitization. Clin Exp Allergy 2000; 30(2):194-200.
31. Braun-Fahrländer C, Wüthrich B, Gassner M, Grize L, Sennhauser FH, Varonier HS, et al. Validation of a rhinitis symptom questionnaire (ISAAC core questions) in a population of Swiss school children visiting the school health services. SCARPOL-team. Swiss Study on Childhood Allergy and Respiratory Symptom with respect to Air Pollution and Climate. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 1997; 8(2):75-82.
|Issue||Vol 10, No 2 (2011)|
|Allergic Rhinitis Asthma Eczema Pet Exposure|
|Rights and permissions|
|This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.|