Original Article

Clinical Presentation of Iranian Patients Affected with COVID-19: A Thousand Faces Disease

Clinical Presentation in COVID-19


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Iran is part of the worldwide pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The present study aimed to demonstrate the clinical characteristics of patients affected by COVID-19, in our tertiary teaching hospital.
Medical records and compiled data of 668 patients with suspected COVID-19 were obtained retrospectively between January to April 2020. The present study outcomes included demographic features of infected patients, underlying diseases and conditions, the relationship between the results of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or CT-scan with the manifestations of the disease, mortality rate, and age distribution of fatalities among men and women.
The median age of hospitalized patients was 63 years old (from 18 to 94). The patients’ chief complaints in the admission time were cough, dyspnea, fever, and gastrointestinal problems, respectively. Hospitalized patients' common comorbidities were hypertension (HTN), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (24%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (21.5%), asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (6%), or other underlying diseases (15.5%). One-third of patients had no comorbidity according to the data of medical records. In hospitalized patients, 169 (84.5%) had positive RT-PCR, and 156 (78%) had positive chest CT findings. The mortality rate of males was higher than females (66.3% vs. 33.3%) and in patients with positive RT-PCR compared to patients with positive chest CT-scan findings. The majority of deaths had a history of DM or HTN/CVD in their medical records.
The chief complaint of patients was cough. DM and HTN or CVD were the common underlying disease related to death in hospitalized cases. Besides, the hospitalization and mortality rate in males was higher than in females. About 87% of dead hospitalized cases had positive RT-PCR results, and this rate was 82% for chest CT results.

1. WORLD Tracking coronavirus: Map, data and timeline [https://bnonews.com/index.php/2020/02/the-latest-coronavirus-cases/]. Accessed 11 Mar 2020.
2. Tuite AR, Bogoch II, Sherbo R, Watts A, Fisman D, Khan K. Estimation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) burden and potential for international dissemination of infection from Iran. Ann. Intern. Med. 2020;172(10):699-701.
3. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, Zhou X, Xu S, Huang H, et al. Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern. Med. 2020.
4. Shahriarirad R, Khodamoradi Z, Erfani A, Hosseinpour H, Ranjbar K, Emami Y, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) in the South of Iran. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20(1):1-12.
5. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/country/iran/ last updated on July 12, 2020.
6. Jin J-M, Bai P, He W, Wu F, Liu X-F, Han D-M, et al. Gender Differences in Patients With COVID-19: Focus on Severity and Mortality. FRONT PUBLIC HEALTH. 2020;8(152).
7. Shi H, Han X, Jiang N, Cao Y, Alwalid O, Gu J, et al. Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020;20(4):425-34.
8. Li Lq, Huang T, Wang Yq, Wang Zp, Liang Y, Huang Tb, et al. COVID‐19 patients' clinical characteristics, discharge rate, and fatality rate of meta‐analysis. J Med Virol. 2020;92(6):577-83.
9. Caruso D, Zerunian M, Polici M, Pucciarelli F, Polidori T, Rucci C, et al. Chest CT features of COVID-19 in Rome, Italy. Radiology. 2020:201237.
10. Emami A, Javanmardi F, Pirbonyeh N, Akbari A. Prevalence of underlying diseases in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch. Acad. Emerg. Med.(AAEM). 2020;8(1).
11. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control available in: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/covid-19/latest-evidence/epidemiology; last updated 11 Jun 2020.
12. Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H, Zhan C, Chen C, Lv W, et al. Correlation of chest CT and RT-PCR testing in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: a report of 1014 cases. Radiology. 2020:200642.
13. Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) Status of COVID-19 in Korea. [Accessed 29 May 2020]. Available at: http://ncov.mohw.go.kr/bdBoardList_Real.do?brdId=1&brdGubun=11&ncvContSeq=&contSeq=&board_id=&gubun=.
14. The Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Emergency Response Epidemiology Team. The epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) - China, 2020. China CDC Weekly. 2020;2:113–122. .
15. Istituto Superiore di Sanità Epidemia COVID-19. [Accessed 10 May 2020]. Available at: https://www.epicentro.iss.it/coronavirus/bollettino/Bollettino-sorveglianza-integrata-COVID-19_2-aprile-2020.pdf
IssueVol 20 No 2 (2021) QRcode
SectionOriginal Article(s)
DOI https://doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v20i2.6047
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Iran Mortality

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
How to Cite
Mostafaei A, Ghojazadeh M, Hajebrahimi S, Abolhasanpour N, Salehi-Pourmehr H. Clinical Presentation of Iranian Patients Affected with COVID-19: A Thousand Faces Disease. Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 20(2):140-146.