Effects of Cigarette Smoke and Opium on the Expression of CD9, CD36, and CD68 at mRNA and Protein Levels in Human Macrophage Cell Line THP-1
Cigarette smoking and opium use are risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD). It has been known that scavenger receptors such as CD36 and CD68 play critical roles in the pathogenesis of CAD. CD9, as a member of the tetraspanin, has been shown to interact with scavenger receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these risk factors on expression levels of CD9, CD36, and CD68 on the THP-1 cell line. The THP-1 cell line treated with cigarette smoke extract (CSE( and opium, both individually and combinatory, in 24 h incubation. The protein and mRNA levels of CD9, CD36, and CD68 were evaluated by flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques, respectively. CD36 and CD68 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly increased in the cells treated with cigarette smoke extract compared to the control (p<0.001 in mRNA expression levels and p=0.016 and p=0.012 in protein expression levels, respectively). The CSE increased the level of CD9 protein expression compared to the control group (p=0.041) on the human macrophage cell line THP-1. No significant differences were observed in the CD9, CD36, and CD68 gene expression and at the protein levels between opium-treated THP-1 cells and controls. In conclusion, cigarettes by increasing the levels of CD36, CD68, and CD9 can be a risk factor in the development of many inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung carcinoma.
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