Factors Influencing Atopic Dermatitis Incidence in Offspring
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, recurrent skin condition resulting from both genetic and environmental factors. In recent decades, the prevalence of AD has increased considerably in some countries. However, given that the role of genetics is unlikely to have changed over this short period, the increased prevalence is more likely to be explained by changes in environmental and maternal factors. The aim of this review is to comprehensively summarize the various factors impacting AD incidence in offspring and provide guidance for primary prevention. Recent research has demonstrated that environmental and climate factors, maternal history of allergies, gestational diabetes, and stress play essential roles in increasing the risk of AD in infants. Some factors have protective effects against the incidence of AD, including probiotic supplementation, fish intake, and moisturizers. This review also considers fundamental research into AD prevalence and factors that in the past were mistakenly thought to affect that prevalence, such as caesarean section and antigen avoidance. The potential influence of these factors on infant AD incidence remains inconclusive and needs further study. Furthermore, infants with a family history of atopic disease may benefit from early weaning or reduced breastfeeding duration.
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