Regulatory Effect of Xiaoqinglong Decoction on Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin (TSLP) Inflammation Promoter in Mice with Cold Asthma
AbstractAllergic asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory airway disease. The thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) signaling pathway plays an important role in asthma. Xiaoqinglong Decoction (XQL) is the first choice to treat cold asthma in clinical settings. In this study, the role of the TSLP pathway in the onset of asthma and the protective mechanism of XQL were investigated. A total of 50 female mice were randomly divided into the following groups: the blank group (A), the model group (B), the XQL group (C), the dexamethasone group (D), and the XQL + dexamethasone group (E). Asthma was induced with ovalbumin, and corresponding drug intervention was carried out for 7 days, after which serum and lung tissue end points were analyzed. Serum interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), and TSLP levels were higher in group B than in group A (p<0.05). However these levels were lower in group C and D than in group B (p<0.05), and there was no significant difference between groups C and D (p>0.05). Interestingly, these end points were significantly lower in group E than in groups C and D (p<0.05). Regarding pathologic changes, the inflammatory infiltrate in the lungs of groups C, D, and E was lower than that of group B, especially in group E. We conclude that the TSLP pathway plays an important role in the course of asthma, and can be used as an important target for asthma treatment; XQL may play a role in reducing inflammation and relieving asthma by regulating the TSLP signaling pathway.
. Bateman ED, Hurd SS, Barnes PJ, Bousquet J, Drazen JM, FitzGerald JM, et al. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention: GINA executive summary. Eur Respir J 2008; 31(1):143-78.National Cooperative Group on Childhood Asthma; Institute of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention; Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Third nationwide survey of childhood asthma in urban areas of China. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2013; 51(10):729-35.Lasker MV, Leventhal SM, Lim D, Green TL, Tung K, Cho K, et al. Hyperactive Human Glu-cocorticoid Receptor Isoforms and Their Implications for the Stress Response. Shock 2015; 43(3):228-32.Zhou L, Qi W, Xu C, Makino T, Yuan D. A rapid method for simultaneous determination of 52 marker compounds in Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci 2014; 37(22):3260-7.Chang RS, Wang SD, Wang YC, Lin LJ, Kao ST, Wang JY. Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang shows preventive effect of asthma in an allergic asthma mouse model through neurotrophin regulation. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013; 13:220.Li XJ, Bai XH, JX Chen, Q Liu, YY Liu, Y Liu, et al. Development and prospect of establishment method of traditional Chinese medicine animal models. China J of TCM and Pharmacy 2014; 29(7): 2263-6.Justice JP, Borchers MT, Crosby JR, Hines EM, Shen HH, Ochkur SI, et al. Ablation of eosinophils leads to a reduction of allergen-induced pulmonary pathology. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2003; 284(1):L169-78.Underwood SL, Haddad el-B, Birrell MA, McCluskie K, Pecoraro M, Dabrowski D, et al. Funational characterization and biomarker identification in the brown Norway model of allergic airway inflammation. Br J Pharmacol 2002; 137(2):263-75.Finlay CM, Stefanska AM, Coleman MM, Jahns H, Cassidy JP, McLoughlin RM, et al. Secreted products of Fasciola hepatica inhibit the induction of T cell responses that mediate allergy. Parasite Immunol 2017. doi: 10.1111/pim.12460Lemanske RF. Asthma in Childhood: Expression, Exacerbation, and Progression. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2016; 4(1):36-7.Grasemann H. Metabolic origins of childhood asthma. Mol Cell Pediatr 2015; 2(1):6.Fall T, Lundholm C, Örtqvist AK, Fall K, Fang F, Hedhammar Å, et al. Early Exposure to Dogs and Farm Animals and the Risk of Childhood Asthma. JAMA Pediatr 2015; 169(11):e153219.Redhu NS, Shan L, Movassagh H, Gounni AS. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induces migration in human airway smooth muscle cells. Sci Rep 2013; 3:2301.Smith SG, Gugilla A, Mukherjee M, Merim K, Irshad A, Tang W, et al. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IL-33 modulate migration of hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients with allergic asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2015; 135(6):1594-1602.Cianferoni A, Spergel J. The importance of TSLP in allergic disease and its role as a potential therapeutic target. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2014; 10(11):1463- 74.Charriot J, Gamez AS, Humbert M, Chanez P, Bourdin A. Targeted therapies in severe asthma: the discovery of new molecules. Rev Mal Respir 2013; 30(8):613-26.Biagini Myers JM, Martin LJ, Kovacic MB, Mersha TB, He H, Pilipenko V, et al. Epistasis between serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5) and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) genes contributes to childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2014; 134(4):891-9.Chen ZG, Zhang TT, Li HT, Chen FH, Zou XL, Ji JZ, et al. Neutralization of TSLP inhibits airway remodeling in a murine model of allergic asthma induced by chronic exposure to house dust mite. PLoS One 2013; 8(1):e51268.Xia H, Luo LM, Yu HP, Cai SX. Effect of different factors on the expression of thymic stromal lymphopoietin in respiratory syncytial virus-infected human airway epithelial cells. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao 2010; 30(3):519-22.Lee HC, Ziegler SF. Inducible expression of the proallergic cytokine thy mic stromal lymphopoietin in airway epithelial cells is controlled by NFkappa B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2007; 104(3):914-9.Bogiatzi SI, Fernandez I, Bichet JC, Marloie-Provost MA, Volpe E, Sastre X, et al. Cutting edge:proinflammatory and Th2 cytokines synergize to induce thymic stromal lymphopoietin production by human skin keratinocytes. J Immunol 2007; 178(6):3373-7.Calvén J, Yudina Y, Hallgren O, Westergren-Thorsson G, Davies DE, Brandelius A, et al. Viral stimuli trigger exaggerated thymic stromal lymphopoietin expression by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease epithelium:role of endosomal TLR3 and cytosolic RIG-I-like helicases. J Innate Immun 2012; 4(1):86-99.