Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology Tehran University of Medical Sciences en-US Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology 1735-1502 Modulation of Macrophage Polarization for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications <p>Innate immune cells play a crucial role in bone development and repair. Macrophages are the main effector cells in immune responses to implants and are indispensable for bone healing success. The heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophages make them a prime target for immune system modulation to enhance bone repair and regeneration. It is believed that the polarization of macrophage phenotype towards the anti-inflammatory M2, rather than the inflammatory M1 phenotype, promotes osteogenesis. Tissue-engineered bioimplants are potentially capable of producing signals to modulate macrophage polarization. Therefore, development of smart immunomodulatory bioimplants via manipulation of their properties seem a promising strategy for tuning immune responses to optimize bone repair without any unwanted inflammatory reactions. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the currently available studies performed on the effects of macrophage polarization, especially towards M2 phenotype, both in bone repair and in bioimplant-stimulated osteogenesis. Moreover, this literature highlights the need to focus future studies on the development of smart immunomodulatory implants capable of switching macrophage polarization-enhancing bone implant-host tissue integration.</p> Zahra Jamalpoor Alireza Asgari Mohammad Hossein Lashkari Abbas Mirshafiey Monireh Mohsenzadegan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-07 2018-10-07 17 5 398 408 Effects of Viola tricolor Flower Hydroethanolic Extract on Lung Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Chronic Asthma <p>Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs driven by T cell activation. <em>Viola tricolor </em>L<em>.</em> as a traditional medical herb could suppress activated T lymphocytes and has been used empirically for asthma remedy. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of <em>Viola tricolor</em> and its underlying mechanism on asthma characteristics induced by ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. BALB/c mice were randomly divided into six groups: normal control, Ovalbumin (OVA) control, OVA mice treated with <em>Viola tricolor</em> (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) and dexamethasone (3 mg/kg). All mice except normal controls were sensitized and challenged with OVA. Asthmatic mice were treated orally in the last 7 days of OVA challenge. The total and differential leukocyte counts, Interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. H and E staining for lung inflammation was performed.&nbsp;<em>Viola tricolor</em> treatment at 200 mg/kg significantly decreased IL-4 level but did not considerably affect the IFN-γ level. Therefore, it effectively reduced asthma characteristics including infiltration of leukocytes particularly eosinophil and peribronchial inflammation as compared to dexamethasone. However, <em>Viola tricolor</em> at 100 mg/kg had the most prominent inhibitory effect on the IL-4 level and also markedly increased IFN-γ level. As result, it prevented further reduction of inflammatory parameters in this group compared to the <em>Viola tricolor</em>-treated group at 200 mg/kg. Our study demonstrated that <em>Viola tricolor</em> has anti-inflammatory effects via inhibition of T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine production and validated its empirical usage in traditional medicine.</p> Elham Harati Maryam Bahrami Alireza Razavi Mohammad Kamalinejad Maryam Mohammadian Tayebeh Rastegar Hamid Reza Sadeghipour ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-14 2018-10-14 17 5 409 417 Modulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Annexin A2 in Response to 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-Butanone -Induced Inflammation via Swimming Training <p>The nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK; nicotine derived nitrosamine ketone) is one of the strongest carcinogens in tobacco which is involved in induction of lung cancer by changing the stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and annexin A2 expression. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in resting levels of annexin A2 and VEGF in lung tissues of rats exposed NNK after 12 weeks of aerobic submaximal swimming training. For this purpose, 46 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups consist of training, training + NNK, NNK, saline and control. NNK-induced groups received NNK subcutaneously one day per week at a rate of 12/5 mg per kg body weight and the training groups performed submaximal swimming training for 12 weeks. The levels of VEGF and annexin A2 in lung tissue were measured respectively by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. To analyze the data; ANOVA and Tukey's test were used at a significance level of <em>p&lt;</em>0.05. Findings indicated that 12 weeks submaximal swimming training decreased the levels of VEGF and annexin A2 in lung tissue significantly when compared to NNK group (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001). There was no significant correlation between VEGF and annexin A2 levels in all study groups (<em>p</em>≥0.05). Generally, it could be confirmed that regular submaximal aerobic training plays an important role in inhibition of the effects of lung inflammation induced by NNK via decreased levels of VEGF and annexin A2.</p> Ali Barzegari Shadmehr Mirdar Mohammad Ranayi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-07 2018-10-07 17 5 418 427 Effect of Kaempferol on Cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) and Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) Protein Expression in BALB/c Mice <p>Kaempferol, a phytochemical found in many edible plants, is known to alleviate diseases such as cancer, allergy, and inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate whether kaempferol could reduce omega-6 and ovalbumin-mediated allergic reactions at lung and trachea in BALB/c mice. Mice were allocated into five groups: 1) control group (CON); 2) positive control group with orally administration of omega-6 (POS); 3) bovine serum albumin (BSA) sensitization group (with BSA injection and ovalbumin inhalation); 4) BSA+K10 group: BSA injection, 10 μg/g of kaempferol administration and ovalbumin inhalation; and 5) BSA+K20 group: BSA injection, 20 μg/g of kaempferol administration and ovalbumin inhalation. Results revealed that serum histamine level was the highest (<em>p</em>&lt;0.01) in BSA group. In lung tissue and trachea, cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox2) expression was significantly (<em>p</em>&lt;0.05) higher in the BSA group compared to that in other groups. However, phosphorylated cytosolic phospholipase A2 (p-cPLA2) expression in the trachea was not significantly different among groups. Taken together, results of this study suggest that kaempferol might be useful for alleviating inflammation reaction associated with Cox2 expression. However, the exact mechanism of action involved in the effect of kaempferol on inflammatory response remains unclear.</p> Da Rae Kang Shah Ahmed Belal Ho Sung Choe Dae Keun Shin Kwan Seob Shim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-14 2018-10-14 17 5 428 435 Assessment of the Inhibitory Effects of Ficin-hydrolyzed Gelatin Derived from Squid (Uroteuthis duvauceli) on Breast Cancer Cell Lines and Animal Model <p>Marine novel natural products have been applied for cancer therapy. Enzyme-digested gelatin hydrolysates have proven to serve as promising sources of potent biologically active peptides. Potential anti-breast cancer properties of the extracted Ficin-digesterd gelatin hydrolysate from Indian squid (<em>Uroteuthis duvauceli</em>) was extensively characterized by cellular and animal models. Gelatin was extracted from squid skin, hydrolyzed by Ficin, and characterized by standard physico-chemical methods. Ficin-digested gelatin hydrolysate was used at various doses of 0-0.1 mg/mL for assessment of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells versus HUVEC normal cells. Cytotoxicity, phase-contrast morphological examination, apoptosis/necrosis, clonal-growth, cell-migration, Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) zymography, and Western blotting were used for cellular assessments. For animal studies, breast tumor-induced BALB/c mice received hydrolyzed gelatin regimen, followed by tumor size/growth and immune-histochemical analyses. Significant inhibition of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with no cytotoxicity on HUVEC cells were detected. Apoptosis was increased in cancer cells, as revealed by elevated ratio of cleaved caspase-3 and PARP<em>.</em> MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in both cancer cells were diminished. In mice, gelatin hydrolysate prevented weight loss, decreased tumor size, induced p53, and down-regulated Ki67 levels. These findings suggest that Ficin-digested gelatin hydrolysate could be a beneficial candidate for novel breast cancer therapies.</p> Sogol Shahidi Shahla Jamili Pargol Ghavam Mostafavi Sassan Rezaie Mohammadreza Khorramizadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-14 2018-10-14 17 5 436 452 Evaluation of IL-17 Producing Memory Regulatory and Effector T Cells Expressing CD26 Molecule in Patients with Psoriasis <p>Memory regulatory T cells (Tregs) has been demonstrated to produce IL-17 in Psoriasis. Forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) has been demonstrated not to be reliable marker to evaluate Treg cells. Effector CD4<sup>+</sup>T cells also express Foxp3 after activation. Human T helper-17 cells (Th-17) express high level of surface CD26, while regulatory T cells are CD26 negative or low and this phenotype is stable even after activation of Treg cells. In this study, we aimed to analyze IL-17 producing Treg cells using CD26.&nbsp;Memory T cells were isolated from 10 patients with psoriasis and 10 controls. Ex vivo stimulated IL-17 producing regulatory (Forkhead Box P3 (Foxp3)<sup>+</sup>CD25<sup>+</sup>CD26<sup>-/low</sup>) and effector (Foxp3<sup>+</sup>CD25<sup>+</sup>CD26<sup>hi</sup>) memory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. IL-23, IL-6, TNFα, TGFβ and IL-17 cytokine levels were also evaluated. No significant difference in IL-17<sup>+</sup>memory regulatory T cells was seen between patients and controls (<em>p</em>=0.19). A significant decrease in the percentage of IL-17 producing CD26<sup>hi</sup> effector memory T cells was observed in patients (<em>p</em>=0.04). However, the percentage of these cells was not different between patients with mild or severe form of psoriasis compared to controls (<em>p</em>=0.13). We could not find any significant difference regarding IL-23, IL-6, TNFα, TGFβ and IL-17 cytokine levels in plasma and cell culture supernatant samples between patients and controls.&nbsp;Taken together, our results showed a reduced IL-17 producing effector memory CD26<sup>hi</sup> T cells in patients with psoriasis compared to controls. However, IL-17 producing memory regulatory CD4<sup>+</sup>T cells of patients showed no significant difference from that of controls.&nbsp;</p> Behnaz Esmaeili Parvin Mansouri Alipasha Meysamie Maryam Izad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-14 2018-10-14 17 5 453 463 Evaluation of ERAP1 Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Impressing the Inflammatory Cytokine Profile of Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients <p>Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), an autoinflammatory disease, has been associated with impaired Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP) 1 activity, which is involved in priming antigenic peptides. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the genetic variant of <em>ERAP1</em> gene could impress the inflammation status of the AS patients. For genotyping, 140 AS cases and 140 healthy controls were enrolled. After isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and DNA extraction, all the subjects were genotyped for rs27044 polymorphism using SSP-PCR assay. Total RNA of PBMCs was isolated, cDNA was synthesized, and quantitative analyses of mRNA expression of cytokines were performed via Real-time PCR using the SYBR Green Gene Expression MasterMix. To measure the concentration of cytokines in serum of subjects, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used. It was observed that the G allele of rs27044 polymorphism was significantly prevalent in AS patients. Moreover, the GG genotype and the GG+GC dominant model had significantly different distribution between study groups. There was a significant overexpression of mRNAs of IL-17A, IL-6, IL-33, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, while IL-10 was significantly downregulated in AS patients. The ELISA results were in line with that of the gene expression analysis. No significant differences in mRNA expression and concentration of cytokine were identified among AS patients with three genotypes for rs27044 SNP. This study replicated the association of polymorphisms in <em>ERAP1</em> gene with the risk of AS in a population from Iranian. However, it did not directly determine the inflammatory profile of the AS patients.</p> Hamed Mohammadi Farhad Babaie Maryam Hemmatzadeh Gholamreza Azizi Mehrzad Hajaliloo Ali Asghar Ebrahimi Tohid Kazemi Mehdi Yousefi Alireza Rezaiemanesh Elham Safarzadeh Elham Baghbani Jafar Majidi Behzad Baradaran ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-20 2018-10-20 17 5 464 474 Genetic Variation in Intergenic and Exonic miRNA Sequence and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis in the Isfahan Patients <p>MicroRNAs (miRNAs), have been documented to perform a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease. Recent studies have shown that single nucleotide polymorphism in the sequence of the miRNA may change their production and expression which can lead to miRNA dysfunction and pathogenicity. Some studies have reported the relationship between miRNA polymorphism and the increased risk of autoimmune disease. This study was conducted to investigate the association between <em>mir</em>155 rs767649, mir196a2 rs11614913 and <em>mir</em>23a rs3745453 polymorphism and the risk of multiple sclerosis in the Iranian MS patients in Isfahan. A population of 80 patients and the same number control were selected. After DNA extraction, genotyping was performed through tetra amplification refractory mutation system-PCR method (T ARMS PCR). The frequencies of TT, TC and CC genotypes of <em>mir</em>23a were 46, 35 and 20% in MS patients and 42, 14 and 24 in healthy subjects respectively. These results showed that individuals carrying the genotypes of rs3745453 TC had a 2.3-fold increased risk of MS (OR=2.3, <em>p</em>=0.048). There was no significant difference between genotypes and allele frequency of <em>mir</em>155 and <em>mir</em>196a2 in patients and healthy controls (<em>p</em>&gt;0.05). Our findings specified that CT heterozygosity in <em>mir</em>23a gene significantly related with risk of MS. Unlike <em>mir</em>155 and <em>mir</em>196a2, <em>mir</em>23a rs3745453 may have contributed to the etiology of MS in Isfahan patients. However, extensive studies are required to gain more reliable and authentic results.</p> Zeynab Golshani Zohreh Hojati Ali Sharifzadeh Vahid Shaygannejad Mojtaba Jafarinia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-14 2018-10-14 17 5 1 8477-484 Effect of Progesterone on Expression of MMP7 and MMP13 in Lungs of Female Mice <p>Gender medicine is a new era of science which focuses on the impact of sex hormones and gender on normal physiology, pathobiology and clinical features of diseases. In this study we investigated the impact of pregnancy doses of progesterone hormone on the expression of a couple of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs), which are known to be involved in tissue remodeling of lungs in health and disease, namely MMP7 and 13.&nbsp;Pregnancy maintenance dose of progesterone was administered to female BALB/c mice for 21 and 28 days, the control group received PBS for the same days. After removal of the lungs and RNA extraction, quantitative real-time PCR was done using specific primers for MMP7 and MMP13. We found that progesterone can slightly (not significantly) decrease the expression of MMP13 but had no effect on MMP7. Our results shows that progesterone has minimal effect on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase7 and matrix metalloproteinase 13, but it may still have an effect on corresponding tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) or other components of the Extracellular matrix &nbsp;which remains to be elucidated. Also, the effect of progesterone on these MMPs can be further studied in a fibrosis model.</p> Elahe Izadi Fateme Vafashoar Paria Jorbozedar Pendar Safari Mohamad Ali Assarehzadegan Hadi Poormoghim Jalil Kuhpayezadeh Nazanin Mojtabavi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-20 2018-10-20 17 5 485 489 Increased Total Serum Immunoglobulin E in Children Developing Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related Extra-pulmonary Diseases <p><em>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</em> has been recognized to be involved in several extra-pulmonary diseases, but the underlying immunologic mechanisms are still largely unknown. Recently, we observed a significant elevation of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) in a small group of these children. Here, we assessed total serum IgE levels in children affected with <em>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</em>-related extra-pulmonary diseases. We prospectively collected the data of 162 children admitted to the hospital (because of respiratory infections or extra-pulmonary diseases) who were evaluated for <em>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</em> serology and total serum IgE levels, concomitantly. Based upon clinical and serology aspects, 3 groups of children were identified: I) with non-mycoplasma respiratory disease; II) with mycoplasma-related respiratory diseases; III) with extra-pulmonary diseases related to concomitant/recent <em>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</em> infection. Interestingly, children with <em>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</em>-related extra-pulmonary diseases showed a significant elevation of total serum IgE. In particular, patients developing <em>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</em>-related extra-pulmonary diseases (group III) showed significantly higher level of IgE than both previous groups (<em>p</em>&lt;0.001 vs. group I; <em>p</em>&lt;0.01 vs. group II). In conclusion, hospitalized children diagnosed with <em>Mycoplasma pneumoniae</em>-related extra-pulmonary diseases resulted to have significantly increased serum IgE compared to children developing respiratory illnesses only.</p> Dimitri Poddighe Elena Virginia Comi Ilaria Brambilla Amelia Licari Paola Bruni Gian Luigi Marseglia ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-09 2018-10-09 17 5 490 496 Sensitization and Geographical Distribution of Main Aeroallergens in Iran <p>N0 Abstract</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fardis Teifoori Idoia Postigo Mohammad Abtahi Mehdi Dehghani Jorge Martinez ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-07 2018-10-07 17 5 497 501